SOME MEDICAL FACTS

Description:

Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. Some individuals (an estimated 20–30% of the general population) have an arch that simply never develops in one foot (unilaterally) or both feet (bilaterally).

There is a functional relationship between the structure of the arch of the foot and the biomechanics of the lower leg. The arch provides an elastic, springy connection between the forefoot and the hind foot. This association safeguards so that a majority of the forces incurred during weight bearing of the foot can be dissipated before the force reaches the long bones of the leg and thigh.

Cause:

Flat feet can develop in adulthood (“adult acquired flatfoot”) due to injury, illness, unusual or prolonged stress to the foot, faulty biomechanics, or as part of the normal aging process. This is most common in women over 40 years of age. Known risk factors include obesity, hypertension and diabetes. Flat feet can also occur in pregnant women as a result of temporary changes, due to increased elastin (elasticity) during pregnancy. However, if developed by adulthood, flat feet generally remain flat permanently.

Children and adolescents with flat feet are a common occurrence. The human arch develops in infancy and early childhood as part of normal muscle, tendon, ligament and bone growth. Flat arches in children usually become high arches as the child progresses through adolescence and into adulthood. Since children are unlikely to suspect or identify flat feet on their own, it is important for adult caregivers to check on this themselves. Besides visual inspection, caregivers should notice when a child’s gait is abnormal. Children who complain about calf muscle pains, arch pain, or any other pains around the foot area may be developing or have developed flat feet. Children with flat feet are at a higher risk of developing knee, hip, and back pain.

Symptoms

The effects of flat feet fall under two categories, which are asymptotic and symptomatic. Individuals with rigid flat feet tend to exhibit symptoms such as foot and knee tendinitis.

A person with flat feet tends to overpronate in the running form and other persons with flat feet may have an underpronating if they are not a neutral gait.  A person who overpronates in his or her running form may be more susceptible to shin splints, back problems, and tendonitis in the knee. Running in shoes with extra medial support or using special shoe inserts, orthotics, may help correct one’s running form by reducing pronation and will reduce risk of injury.

Pathophysiology

Research has shown that tendon specimens from people who suffer from adult acquired flat feet show evidence of increased activity of proteolytic enzymes. These enzymes can break down the constituents of the involved tendons and cause the foot arch to fall. In the future, these enzymes may become targets for new drug therapies

Diagnosis

Professionals can diagnose a flat foot by examining the patient standing or just looking at them. On going up onto tip toe the deformity will correct when this is a flexible flat foot in a child with lax joints. Such correction is not seen in adults with a rigid flat foot.

An easy and traditional home diagnosis is the “wet footprint” test, performed by wetting the feet in water and then standing on a smooth, level surface such as smooth concrete or thin cardboard or heavy paper. You can use this Children’s foot analysis tool to test your child’s feet and determine if your child needs assistance with their feet.  Usually, the more the sole of the foot that makes contact (leaves a footprint), the flatter the foot. In more extreme cases, known as a kinked flatfoot, the entire inner edge of the footprint may actually bulge outward, where in a normal to high arch this part of the sole of the foot does not make contact with the ground at all.

On plain radiography, flat feet can be diagnosed and graded by several measures, the most important being the talonavicular coverage angle, the calcaneal pitch, and the talar-1st metatarsal angle (Meary’s angle). The talonavicular coverage angle is abnormally laterally rotated in flat feet. It is normally up to 7 degrees laterally rotated, so a greater rotation indicates flat feet.

View these images to see just a few of the hundreds of before and after scans of childrens feet where flat foot has been eliminated using 2ft Orthotics.

Avoid Painful Surgery

Surgery

In some cases, surgery can provide lasting relief, and even create an arch where none existed before; it should be considered a last resort, as it is usually very painful, invasive, time consuming and costly.

GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS

The Gait Analysis pages describe how each of the 12 common foot problems affect the way you walk and how this affects the physiology of your body as a whole.  An awkward gait causing abnormal steps will change how your weight is distributed across your lower back and lower body joints.  An awkward gait can lead to back pain, hip pain, knee pain, ankle pain & heel pain and in many cases; shoulder and neck pain!  Its important to remember that your feet are the foundation that support your whole body.  If the foundation is faulty, your whole body is affected.

Bio Human 3D model of a Flat Foot

Bio Human 3D Model

Click on the image to the left to see a 3d Bio Human model of the Anatomy and Physiology of your foot.  By selecting any component of the anatomy of this model of your foot you can view it on its own.  You can turn the model 360 degress, zoom in and out and strip away parts to reveal the functions of the foot.  This is a medical tool and is used by doctors and surgeons world wide and accurately depicts the physiology of the human foot in detail.

Basic Instructions:

Select the “click to interact in 3d” to manipulate the model.  Select any anatomical component using your mouse pointer.  The Anatomical component will change colour.  Go to the menu that appears on your screen where you can the select different menu items that allow you to manipulate the model.   Note: Edit items in the menu allow you to isolate parts, dissect parts and cross section parts of the foot anatomy.

CONTACT US

Hi there :-) Opps! we're not around right now. Send us an email and we'll get back to you, asap.

Sending

©2018 2ft Orthotics Singapore Mfg Pte Ltd

Website Development by glimpzz logo | Inquiries eyeson@glimpzz.com

Log in with your credentials

or    

Forgot your details?

Create Account