Over Pronated Foot
Over Pronated Foot
Over Pronated Foot
Over Pronated Foot


Description Pronation:

Those who over pronate tend to push off almost completely from the big toe and second toe. As a result, the shock from the foot’s impact doesn’t spread evenly throughout the foot and the ankle has trouble stabilizing the rest of the body. Additionally, an unnatural angle forms between the foot and ankle and the foot splays out abnormally. It is common even for people who pronate normally to have some angle between the foot and the ankle, but not to the extent seen in those who over pronate. In normal pronation the weight distributes evenly throughout the foot


There are many possible causes for overpronation, but researchers have not yet determined one underlying cause. Hintermann states, “Compensatory overpronation may occur for anatomical reasons, such as a tibia vara of 10 degrees or more, forefoot varus, leg length discrepancy, ligamentous laxity, or because of muscular weakness or tightness in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles.” Pronation can be influenced by sources outside of the body as well. Shoes have been shown to significantly influence pronation. Hintermann states that the same person can have different amounts of pronation just by using different running shoes. “It is easily possible that the maximal ankle joint eversion movement is 31 degrees for one and 12 degrees for another running shoe.”


Over pronation may have secondary effects on the lower legs, such as increased rotation of the tibia, which may result in lower leg or knee problems. Overpronation is usually associated with many overuse injuries in running including medial tibial stress syndrome, or shin splints, and knee pain Hintermann states, “Individuals with injuries typically have pronation movement that is about two to four degrees greater than that of those with no injuries.” He adds however, that between 40% and 50% of runners who overpronate do not have overuse injuries. This suggests that although pronation may have an effect on certain injuries, it is not the only factor influencing their development.


A quick and easy way to see if you overpronate is to look at the bottom of your shoes for signs of wear and tear. If most of the wear is on the inside sole near the ball of the foot and near the big toe, there’s a good possibility that you overpronate. You may even notice that your shoes tilt inward if you look at them on a flat surface.

Now take a look at your bare feet. Do you have low arches or flat feet? This may be another sign.

People who overpronate also experience a number of symptoms, including:

  • heel or arch pain
  • flat feet
  • corns or calluses
  • knee, hip, or back pain
  • hammer toes

Another way to tell if you over pronate is to look at your shins. Try following the line of your bone from your knee all the way to your ankle. If this line leads toward the inside portion of your foot, you may be overpronating. Ideally, you want the line of your bone to lead to the first or second toe.


As the foot is loaded, eversion of the subtalar joint, dorsiflextion of the ankle, and abduction of the forefoot occur. … Abnormal pronation occurs when a foot pronates when it should supinate, or overpronates during a normal pronation period of the gait cycle.


The design principles of foot orthoses are founded on knowledge of the functional anatomy of the foot. Pronation of the foot is triplanar. The axis of rotation in the foot joints is not perpendicular to any of the cardinal planes (sagittal, horizontal, frontal) of the human body. The triplanar motion of the foot postulates that blocking of any one component of triplanar motion in a single cardinal plane prevents movement in the other two planes as well. This all-or-nothing rule is the premise for orthotic posting or wedging.

Supportive orthotics in the shoe is a method commonly implemented to treat many common running injuries associated with excessive pronation. An advantage of orthotics is that they often allow the runner to continue to participate in athletic activity and avoid other treatment options that could be potentially costly and time consuming. Seventy-five percent of injured runners are successfully treated with the prescription of orthoses. Orthotics are the most effective treatment for symptoms that develop from bizarre biomechanics within the body such as overpronation, resulting in either great improvement or complete healing of the injury in about half the cases.


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The Gait Analysis pages describe how each of the 12 common foot problems affect the way you walk and how this affects the physiology of your body as a whole.  An awkward gait causing abnormal steps will change how your weight is distributed across your lower back and lower body joints.  An awkward gait can lead to back pain, hip pain, knee pain, ankle pain & heel pain and in many cases; shoulder and neck pain!  Its important to remember that your feet are the foundation that support your whole body.  If the foundation is faulty, your whole body is affected.

Click here to learn about the Over Pronation Gait Cycle Analysis


An example of a surgery to correct over pronation is hyprocure surgery.  This type of surgery uses a mechanical means to realign the bones of the feet to force an arch to be created.  A titanium bolt is place between the calcaneus and talis bone below the fibula in the sinus tarsi to prevent it from collapsing by forcing the bones apart.  The surgery is invasive and as such takes considerable time to become pain free and of course there is considerable expense.  It works in many cases but comes at a high cost both in pain, healing time and in funds and in the vast majority of cases its unnecessary.

View a 3D model of Over Pronation

Image of a normal foot

Bio Human 3D Model

Click on the image to the left to see a 3d Bio Human model of the Anatomy and Physiology of your foot.  By selecting any component of the anatomy of this model of your foot you can view it on its own.  You can turn the model 360 degrees, zoom in and out and strip away parts to reveal the functions of the foot.  This is a medical tool and is used by doctors and surgeons world wide and accurately depicts the physiology of the human foot in detail.

Basic Instructions:

Select the “click to interact in 3d” to manipulate the model.  Select any anatomical component using your mouse pointer.  The Anatomical component will change colour.  Go to the menu that appears on your screen where you can the select different menu items that allow you to manipulate the model.   Note: Edit items in the menu allow you to isolate parts, dissect parts and cross section parts of the foot anatomy.


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